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The Star Wars science fiction universe, created by George Lucas , features dialogue that is not spoken in natural languages. The lingua franca of the franchise, for which the language the works are dubbed or written stand in, is Galactic Basic.
The fictional languages were approached as sound design and developed largely by Ben Burtt , sound designer for both the original and prequel trilogy of films. He created alien dialogue out of the sounds of primarily non-English languages, such as Quechua , Haya , and Tibetan.
Lucas also insisted that written text throughout the films look as dissimilar from the English alphabet as possible, and constructed alphabets were developed. The languages constructed for the films were criticized as not being true constructed languages , instead relying on creating the simple impression of a fully developed language.
The usage of heavily accented English for alien characters was also criticized as contributing to the suggestion of racial stereotypes. Language development was approached as sound design and was handled by Ben Burtt , sound designer for both the original and prequel trilogies. He created the alien dialogue out of existing non-English language phrases and their sounds, such as Quechua for Greedo in the original Star Wars film and Haya for the character Nien Nunb in Return of the Jedi.
This methodology to create the sound of alien languages was carried into production of The Force Awakens. Abrams asked Sara Forsberg , who lacked a professional background in linguistics but created the viral video series "What Languages Sound Like to Foreigners" on YouTube , to develop alien dialogue spoken by Indonesian actor Yayan Ruhian.
During production of the prequel trilogy, Lucas insisted that written text throughout the films look as dissimilar from the English alphabet as possible and strongly opposed English-looking characters in screens and signage.
In developing typefaces for use in Episode II — Attack of the Clones , including Mandalorian and Geonosian scripts, graphic artist Philip Metschan created alphabets that did not have twenty-six letters like the English alphabet. Galactic Basic, often simply Basic, is the lingua franca of the Star Wars universe, for which the language in which the works are dubbed or written act as a stand-in. Lucas intended to balance American accents and British accents between the heroes and villains of the original film so that each side had each.
He also strove to keep accents "very neutral", noting Alec Guinness 's and Peter Cushing 's mid-Atlantic accents and his guidance to Anthony Daniels to speak in an American accent.
Eventually, they chose a heavily Thai -accented English, and Carson rerecorded the dialogue to mimic the Thai actor's accent. Yoda characteristically speaks a non-standard syntax of Basic, primarily constructing sentences in object-subject-verb word order rare in natural languages. This sentence construction is cited as a "clever device for making him seem very alien" and characterizes his dialogue as "vaguely riddle-like, which adds to his mystique". This tendency is noted to be written for an English-speaking audience; the word order is retained in Estonian subtitles, where it is grammatical but unusual and emphatic, and Yoda's dialogue is in subject—object—verb word order in Czech dubs.
Gungan characters, notably Jar Jar Binks , speak in a heavily accented Basic dialect critics described as a "Caribbean-flavored pidgin ",  "a pidgin mush of West African , Caribbean and African-American linguistic styles",  "very like Jamaican patois , albeit a notably reductive, even infantilized sort",  and suggestive of stereotypical African-American culture.
Aurebesh is a writing system used to represent spoken Galactic Basic and is the most commonly seen form of written language in the Star Wars franchise. The alphabet was based on shapes designed by Joe Johnston for the original trilogy, which are briefly featured in screen displays in Return of the Jedi. Johnston's design, called Star Wars 76 , was created into a font and again used in Attack of the Clones by Metschan, who incorporated the font alongside the later Aurebesh version used in the spin-off products.
In the early s, Stephen Crane, art director at West End Games , became intrigued with the shapes as they appeared on the Death Star. He sought to develop them into an alphabet to be used in West End Games' licensed Star Wars products, primarily to allow players to render their characters' names, and received permission from Lucasfilm to do so as long as it was presented as one of many alphabets in the Star Wars galaxy, not the sole and exclusive alphabet.
After copying the letters from screenshots by hand, he standardized the letters based on shapes similar to the Eurostile font. He named and assigned a value to each letter, and derived the name "Aurebesh" from the names of the first two letters: Once Crane completed the alphabet, Lucasfilm requested a copy to distribute to other licensees. Droidspeak is a language consisting of beeps and other synthesized sounds used by some droid characters, such as R2-D2 and BB The Ewoks of the forest moon of Endor speak a "primitive dialect" of one of the more than six million other forms of communication that C-3PO is familiar with.
He describes how, after some research, he identified an year-old Kalmyk refugee. He recorded her telling folk stories in her native language, and then used the recordings as a basis for sounds that became the Ewok language and were performed by voice actors who imitated the old woman's voice in different styles. Marcia Calkovsky of Lethbridge University maintains that Tibetan language contributed to Ewok speech along with Kalmyk, starting the story from attempts to use language samples of Native Americans and later turning to nine Tibetan women living in San Francisco area, as well as one Kalmyk woman.
People of the Tibetan diaspora were puzzled as many of the phrases they could make out did not correlate to events on screen. In the original Star Wars film, Greedo speaks an unspecified alien language, which is understood by Han Solo.
Allen Sonnefrank, a Quechua speaker and linguistic anthropology student at University of California, Berkeley , claimed Lucasfilm contacted him to record Quecha dialogue for the film. Because he was told the dialogue was to be played backward for the film, Sonnefrank refused to record the dialogue, feeling it to be a "potentially exploitative move best made by one whose first language was Quechua, if at all".
Another lingua franca in the Star Wars Universe that is spoken by many groups and species is Huttese , spoken on Nal Hutta , Nar Shaddaa , Tatooine and other worlds in and around Hutt space. It is spoken in the films by both non-humans Jabba the Hutt , Watto , Sebulba and others and humans. In fact, the whole Max Rebo Band communicates and sings in Huttese. Its phonology is said to be based on the Quechuan languages.
The Jawas , also found on Tatooine, speak in a high-pitched, squeaky voice. To speak to others of their species along with the voice they emit a smell showing their emotions.
When trading droids and dealing with non-Jawas they speak without the smell because many consider the smell "Foul. It was named Mando'a and extensively expanded by Karen Traviss , author of the Republic Commando novel series.
Mando'a is characterized as a primarily spoken, agglutinative language that lacks grammatical gender in its nouns and pronouns. The Sith language, intended to be spoken by Sith characters, was created by Ben Grossblatt for the Book of Sith , published in February Development on the language and accompanying writing system began in November Grossblatt sought to create a pronounceable language that was not "cartoonish" and "would conform to the patterns of principles of [human] [ sic ] language.
He felt that it needed to "feel martial and mystical" and be a "suitable, aesthetically-pleasing vehicle for communication". He characterized the sound of the language as "tough—but not barbarous" and as "convey[ing] a kind of confident, elegant cruelty".
To achieve "formal, quasi-military" and "imposing, undeniable" qualities, he preferred closed syllables , creating brisk and choppy words, and constructed the language as agglutinative. Shyriiwook, also known as Wookieespeak,  is a language consisting largely of roars and growls spoken by Wookiee characters, notably Chewbacca.
These sounds were mixed in different ratios to create different roars. The Tusken Raiders of Tatooine , according to the video game Knights of the Old Republic , speak a language of their own; it is difficult for non-Tuskens to understand this language.
In the game, a droid named HK assists the player in communicating with the Tusken Raiders. Generally, they utter roars and battle cries when seen in public.
Leia repeats the same Ubese phrase three times, translated differently in subtitles and by C-3PO each time. Peterson , linguist and creator of constructed languages, cited his attempt as a young fan to reconcile this apparent impossibility as an example of how even casual fans may notice errors in fictional constructed languages.
Ben Zimmer labeled the method of language construction in Star Wars "a far cry" from that of constructed languages like Klingon , Na'vi , and Dothraki ,  and he described the use of language as "never amount[ing] to more than a sonic pastiche ".
Linguistic anthropologist Jim Wilce summarized analyses of language in Star Wars conducted through the Society for Linguistic Anthropology's electronic mailing list. David Samuels described the approach to language as instrumental and compared the films to a Summer Institute of Linguistics convention, in which "there are no untranslatable phrases, and everyone can understand everyone else", and pointed out that the "idea that the Force is something that would be understood differently in the context of different grammars is never broached".
Hal Schiffmann made five observations about language in Star Wars: Zimmer supported Schiffmann's claim that untranslated alien languages are not representations of real languages by pointing the film's script, which describes the language of the Jawas as "a queer, unintelligible language" and that of the Tusken Raiders as "a coarse, barbaric language".
Wilce also pointed out discussion on the usage of real non-English to create the " Otherness " of characters such as Jabba the Hutt, Greedo, and the Ewoks. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article possibly contains original research.
Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Force Awakens ' ". Word on the Street. The Wall Street Journal.
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