Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
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Carbon Brief's series on negative emissions Explainer: Put simply, without deploying BECCS at a global scale from mid-century onwards, most modellers think we will likely breach this limit by the end of this century. Who came up with it? Who then developed and promoted the concept? Continuing our week-long series of articles on negative emissions, Carbon Brief has looked back over the past two decades and pieced together the seminal moments — the conferences, the conversations, the papers — which saw BECCS develop into one of the key assumed options for avoiding dangerous climate change.
The interactive timeline above shows these moments in sequential order. But Carbon Brief has also spoken to the scientists who were instrumental to the concept first taking hold…. A few weeks later, the two men picked up the conversation over the phone, explains Obersteiner: But Obersteiner says the paper has, subsequently, been misinterpreted by some: But the BECCS concept was unfortunately misused for regular [emissions pathway] scenarios and not in a risk management sense.
IAMs are computer models that analyse a co2 capture and storage a key carbon abatement option trading range of data - e. For climate research, specifically, IAMs are typically used to project future greenhouse gas emissions and climate impacts, and the benefits and costs of policy options that could be implemented to tackle them. Close Integrated Assessment Models: For climate research, specifically,… Read More.
Thus, the strategy should be to plan climate mitigation for a still ambitious climate target without BECCS, but still prepare for it in terms of large scale afforestation and regeneration to be prepared for the backstop, if needed. All of the integrated assessment models IAMs are deterministic [ie, co2 capture and storage a key carbon abatement option trading a single outcome per model] and do not allow for risk management thinking.
Glossary Carbon Capture and Storage: Where factories or power stations use technology to capture some of their CO2 and store it underground, reducing emissions. Close Carbon Capture and Storage: Along with a PhD student called James Rhodes, he, too, had begun to flesh out some early thinking about the potential of achieving negative emissions through the co2 capture and storage a key carbon abatement option trading of bioenergy and CCS. I started to give some talks about the combination of biomass and CCS in the late co2 capture and storage a key carbon abatement option trading.
At that point, as I recall, we were thinking about biomass that implied negative emissions. Keith has trawled through his archives for Carbon Brief, but says he can only find a single Powerpoint presentation from which mentions biomass with CCC: I have an email to Jamie Rhodes sent on 7 November Rhodes, who is now a private consultant and inventor based in California, says this chimes with his memory, too: But Keith also used the article to raise concerns about the large scale use of bioenergy for climate mitigation: Greenhouse gases can be expressed in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent, or CO 2 eq.
For a given amount, different greenhouse gases trap different amounts of heat in the atmosphere, a quantity known as the global warming potential. Carbon dioxide equivalent is a way of comparing emissions from all greenhouse gases, not just carbon dioxide.
Close CO 2 equivalent: Greenhouse gases can be expressed in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent, or CO2eq. For a given amount, different greenhouse gases trap different amounts of heat in the atmosphere, a quantity known as… Read More. Even at this early stage, scientists were seeing problems associated with deploying BECCS at scale, as well as the positives. But a key tipping point in the story of BECCS came when climate scientists started to increasingly include it in their modelling for sub-2C emissions pathway scenarios, often co2 capture and storage a key carbon abatement option trading the point that they grew reliant on it.
As a result, Van Vuuren now believes that climate scientists and policymakers stand at a crucial crossroads: Should decision-makers follow the results of these models, and take the risk that these technologies will potentially not emerge and thus locking us in in higher concentration levels? It would be good if science could help decision-makers with that crucial question. The appointment of the former senator from Massachusetts and one-time Presidential contender has been…. Get a Daily or Weekly round-up of all the important articles and papers selected by Carbon Brief by email.
Carbon Brief's series on negative emissions. At that time, I was very annoyed that parts per million [CO2 atmospheric concentration] was the accepted climate target simply because the integrated assessment models IAMs could not project below that.
At that time, with the insight that, in principle, there was the possibility to use an industrial process to generate negative emissions on large scale, we got excited and wrote a paper in two weeks. Terrestrial sinks are limited by land requirements and saturation, and concerns about permanence limit their attractiveness.
However, biomass energy can be used both to produce carbon neutral energy carriers, e. The long-run potential of such a permanent sink technology is large enough to neutralize historical fossil fuel emissions and satisfy a significant part of global energy and raw material demand.
My focus was on looking at the pulp and paper industry as a very important industrial branch in the Swedish energy system. What measures could be taken to achieve cost effective emission reductions or CO2 emission reductions?
We also noticed that, as far as we could see, all that work was focused on emissions from fossil use. We simply decided to investigate what CCS could mean in the context of pulp and paper mills. When we did this work, we were looking at energy systems with a negative CO2 balance. For me, personally, it felt exciting co2 capture and storage a key carbon abatement option trading see that.
We looked at various power cycles and integrated fuel to capture into those power cycles and to get preliminary performance data. Then we tried to estimate costs. That was done during the year In earlywe had something to present and that is the material that I brought to Cambridge. When I was preparing to write the paper for that Cambridge conference, I did some academic literature surveys and I could only find two or three papers that had considered power cycles or energy cycles with biomass and CCS.
What I did was to take this a step further and test the idea on a purely biomass-based system and acknowledge the fact that a negative emission is good, and that it should be rewarded in some way. When I wrote the paper for my conference in Cambridge and later on for the World Resource Review journal [see timeline above], I was trying to look at some kind of model that rewarded the pulp mill for negative emissions.
The principle that you could create an incentive for a power producer, or an industry, to generate negative emissions by allowing them to sell an emission code, or something like that, that still holds. I saw co2 capture and storage a key carbon abatement option trading extensive emailing back and forth from the majority of the names that were in that paper discussing how to present the idea.
Mainly, the notion was of having to manage planetary risk; to be able to respond if and when it is realised that conventional technologies might not be considered sufficient. My impression is that group of people worked very well together to try to present that concept in a compact way based on robust science. Carbon Capture and Storage: From my perspective, the concept initially came up during discussions of several possible research topics for my thesis work.
However, my sense was that the topic had been discussed as a potentially interesting area of enquiry among several faculty members well before that time. I was not exposed to those earlier discussions. An initial framework for analysis emerged fairly quickly during those early discussions with David, and it grew to became a cornerstone of my doctoral research.
The analytic framework was developed in the winter of and throughout the following spring. The core model was developed over the summer of and refined throughout the fall and winter. I recall my impression of it being both a solid piece of analysis and a useful validation for the approach we were developing at the time. My recollection is that during the period of my early research we used a number of labels, descriptions and acronyms, which varied over time and across concepts and technological pathways.
Up to aroundthe lowest scenarios in the literature were co2 capture and storage a key carbon abatement option trading at ppm CO2 only, i. That was assumed to be consistent with 2C. Co2 capture and storage a key carbon abatement option trading new scenarios providing a better chance of 2C would be needed. The paper attracted interest as it was the first multi-gas model looking at such low greenhouse gas forcing targets.
The work was published in in Climatic Change. However, it became even more well known during the IPCC expert meeting on new mitigation scenarios in Noordwijkerhout in The two lowest multigas scenarios in the literature at that time were from that IMAGE climatic change paper, i.
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