Mechanics of Futures Markets Chapter 2 (all editions)
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Weather derivatives are financial instruments that can be used by organizations or individuals as part of a risk management strategy to reduce risk associated with adverse or unexpected weather conditions. Weather derivatives are index-based instruments that usually use observed weather data at a weather station to create an index on which a payout can be based.
This index could derivatives options and futures ppt total rainfall over a relevant period—which may be of relevance for a hydro-generation business—or the number where the minimum temperature falls below zero which might be relevant for a farmer protecting against frost damage.
Unlike "indemnity" insurance-based cover, there is no need to demonstrate that a loss has been suffered. Settlement is objective, based on the final value of the chosen weather index over the chosen period. If a payout is due, it is usually made in a matter of a few days with the settlement period being defined in the contract: Farmers can use weather derivatives to hedge against poor harvests caused by failing rains during the growing period, excessive rain during harvesting, high winds in case of derivatives options and futures ppt or temperature variabilities in case of greenhouse crops; theme parks may want to insure against rainy weekends during peak summer seasons; and gas and power companies may use heating degree days HDD or cooling degree days CDD contracts to smooth earnings.
A sports event managing company may wish to hedge the loss derivatives options and futures ppt entering into a weather derivative contract because if it rains the day of the sporting event, fewer tickets will be sold. Heating degree days are one of the most common index types for weather derivative evaluation.
Typical terms for an HDD contract could be: Such an accumulation can be the basis for a derivative contract which might be structured as an option call or put or as a " swap " that is an agreement to pay or to receive payment.
The price of the power was agreed, and a weather clause was embedded into the contract. This clause stipulated that Aquila would pay ConEd a rebate if August turned out to be cooler than expected. Other discounted levels were worked in for even greater departures from derivatives options and futures ppt. Weather derivatives slowly began trading over-the-counter in As the market for these products grew, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange CME introduced the first exchange-traded weather futures contracts and corresponding optionsin Most of these financial instruments track cooling degree days or heating degree days, but other products track snowfall and rainfall in at ten separate U.
The CME Hurricane Index, an innovation developed by the reinsurance industry provides contracts that are based on a formula derived from the wind speed and radius of named storms at the point of U. A major derivatives options and futures ppt pioneer in weather derivatives was Enron Corporation, through its EnronOnline unit. In an Opalesque video interview, Nephila Capital 's Barney Schauble described how some hedge funds treat weather derivatives as an investment class. Counterparties such as utilities, farming conglomerates, individual companies and insurance companies are essentially looking to hedge their exposure through weather derivatives, and funds have become a sophisticated partner in providing this protection.
Derivatives options and futures ppt has also been a shift over the last few years from primarily fund of funds investment in weather risk, to more direct investment for investors looking for non-correlated items for their portfolio.
Weather derivatives provide a pure non-correlated alternative to traditional financial markets. An online weather derivative exchange Massive Rainfall  was created in and has been used to bet or hedge on specific temperatures, wind speeds and rainfall for specific days in select cities, however it appears to be only an educational tool for practice accounts in a non-existent currency.
There is no standard model for valuing weather derivatives similar to the Black—Scholes formula for pricing Derivatives options and futures ppt style equity option and similar derivatives options and futures ppt. That is because the underlying asset of the weather derivative is non-tradeable which violates a number of key assumptions of the BS Model. Typically weather derivatives are priced in a number of ways:. Business pricing requires the company utilizing weather derivative instruments to understand how its financial performance is affected by adverse weather conditions across a variety of outcomes i.
Alternatively, an investor seeking a certain level of return for a certain level of risk can determine what price he is willing to pay for bearing particular outcome risk related to a particular weather instrument.
The historical payout of the derivative is computed to find the expectation. The method is very quick and simple, but does not produce reliable estimates and could be used only as a rough guideline. It does not incorporate variety of statistical and physical features characteristic of the weather system.
This approach requires building a model of the underlying index, i. The simplest way to model the index is just derivatives options and futures ppt model the distribution of historical index outcomes. We can adopt parametric or non-parametric distributions.
For monthly cooling and heating degree days, assuming a normal distribution is usually warranted. The predictive power of such a model is rather limited. A better result can be obtained by modelling the index generating process on a finer scale.
In the case of temperature contracts, a model of the daily average or min and max temperature time series can be built. The daily temperature or rain, snow, wind, etc.
ARMA or Fourier transform in the frequency domain purely based only on the features displayed in the historical time series of the index. We can utilize the output of numerical weather prediction models based on physical equations describing relationships in the weather system. Their predictive power tends to be less than, or similar to, purely statistical models beyond time horizons of 10—15 days. Ensemble forecasts are especially appropriate for weather derivative pricing within the contract period of a monthly temperature derivative.
However, individual members of the ensemble need to be 'dressed' for derivatives options and futures ppt, with Gaussian kernels estimated from historical performance before a reasonable probabilistic forecast can be obtained. A superior approach for modelling daily or monthly weather variable time series is to combine statistical and physical weather models using time-horizon varying weight which are obtained after optimization of those based on historical out-of-sample evaluation of the combined model scheme performance.
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