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Where is a typical Linux program installed. In Windows, I download an. When I install, I define the path where I want that application to be stored. In that folder, I have all the files required for the application. However, when I install a package in Linux using yum or apt-get , I don't know where the package is installed to and where the required files for that application are stored. But why does Linux store the required files for an application in different directories?
Can someone tell me how packages are installed, and where and how are they stored? And if my understanding about package management is wrong, please correct me.
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For any specific command you can checkout whereis. You can also try which. Under Windows, particularly older versions, it was common for programs to store configuration files and non-constant data in their C: This is derived from how programs were usually installed and ran under single-user, non-networked, non-file-permission DOS. From a security standpoint, this is a bad idea.
Places where executable code lives should be separated from modifiable data. That way it's easier to apply appropriate file permissions to prevent modification of installed binaries by unauthorized users. Similarly library directories which may be updated separately from main executables should also be in a separate directory.
With the advent of Vista and UAC annoyances, this tradition is finally starting to seriously lose traction. UNIX, and Linux, being a multiuser system from much earlier on, had the tendency to separate executable directories from other directories much earlier, since there was a need to prevent users other than root from modifying installed binaries. Packages are usually installed from a package manager. There's various package managers, such as aptitude Debian and derived distributions , yum Redhat and derived distributions , pacman forget which distro this is The package manager lets you browse repositories, download, install, query, and remove software, much like a sophisticated and free "app store.
Usually the package manager will also allow the same operations on a package you downloaded manually outside of any repositories. Tools are also available if you want to create your own from software you made or compiled yourself. Since the package itself is NOT an executable file, you don't have to run an untrusted executable which you don't really know what it does. Windows is finally coming around with updates by distributing.
Obviously, replace "yum-utils" in that second one with the name of that package whose file list you'd like to see. The Wikipedia article describes in more detail the standard directory structure under a normal filesystem hierarchy, showing the different directories and what you can expect to find in each. Software in Linux is a little different in paradigm from Windows or Mac. In those, an executable and all its supporting files are installed into a single folder: Windows normally keeps them in c: Under Linux, there's a more There's even a standard suggesting where things should go.
On a more technical level, the packages are simple compressed files I believe rpm and deb are both. These archives contain a mirror of the pieces of the filesystem from the root where the files go e. To find information on a particular package, use the package manager for your system, as others here have explained. The hier manpage can provide some insights. Questions Tags Users Badges Unanswered. Super User is a question and answer site for computer enthusiasts and power users.
Join them; it only takes a minute: Here's how it works: Anybody can ask a question Anybody can answer The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Where is installed software stored in Linux? Where is a typical Linux program installed I'm new to Linux and I want to ask a bit more about packages.
If your distribution uses rpm , you can use rpm -q --whatprovides to find the package name for a particular file and then rpm -q -a to find out what files a package installed. Levon 4 KOU I don't know the history of this, but it could be so that programs could be updated without messing up the configuration information since it would be in a different directory.
This way different versions could use the same config information assuming the format etc was not changed ie was compatible. I am just surmising here. Imagine backup up system-wide config files in Windows, where they're scattered all through the filesystem and registry You can get a list of the files that a given yum package installs by doing: For apt-get , you can use: Alan Curry 1, 10 8.
On my Ubuntu Kevin 6 AnonymousLurker 1 6 While this link may answer the question, it is better to include the essential parts of the answer here and provide the link for reference. Link-only answers can become invalid if the linked page changes. MaQleod If you are concerned that the link may become invalid, I have linked just for convenience. I could simply write "man hier" in plain text, since you can find this manpage in any mainstream Linux distribution I guess.
Answers should actually answer the question. How does this answer the question posed? Why should the OP or anyone else consider this answer as noteworthy?