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Homework for this week: Link two Arduino compatibles via SPI. One serves as ISP programmer for the second. Use two SPI devices on one Arduino simultaneously. I cannot use plain Arduino Uno's for these tasks, as they do not offer the necessary amount of memory. I cannot use the Arduino Megabecause I cannot solder its processor.

Moreover, we need to build our own board. I found an interesting Blog contribution on the Adafruit learning pages here. An Adafruit forum user has developed a program by the name Optiloader that lets an Arduino, instead of a computer, program another chip, very fast. Optiloader is very specialized, as it lets you program only one chip not a problem for my project using one particular HEX file a problem for my project. Another contributor, Mike Tsao, improved and extended Adafruit's further development and published the result by the name adaStandalone.

One highlight among his improvements is that the memory footprint of the hex code you feed the AVR with is now roughly half as large as that achieved by the guys at Adafruit. Tsao achieved this by changing the data format. For information on what he improved, see the section "Changing the Code" on the Adafruit training website above link and the comments in adaStandalone. At this time I realized that I had made a notional mistake. There is a problem that is not immediately obvious: This means that, in particular, the hex code from the SD card cannot be read in its entirety into Flash memory, where it would rest until it is written out to another Arduino.

The Flash memory cannot be written during program execution; it is the same memory the program is burnt into beforehand. A solution for this is to stream the hex data from the SD card and simultaneously write it out to the second device. This is what I have to do now. An advantage would be that I could use an ordinary Satshakit for the device that is writing to the second because I would not need the larger memory of the Mighty ATmegap. But there is an alternative.

With a modified Optiboot boot loader by Marek Wodzinski, it has fairly recently become possible to write to Flash memory during runtime. Wodzinski has added three new commands to the Optiboot boot loader that allow you to write pages or words or erase the memory. If my above streaming approach fails, I could also try this. The modified boot loader and the technique are detailed on this GIThub page and in this Arduino forum entry. Modifications to the sketch AdaStandalone: His program and OptiLoader see optiLoader.

I found out that the ATmegap has the same page size as the ATmegap which is used in the Arduino Uno, words, which is byte see here in section "Grundlagen" and in the ATmegap datasheet, pagesection When I was investigating the code in AdaStandaloneI realized that it would be very hard for me to make the necessary modifications to the code for on-the-fly streaming from SD card.

Also, I regarded it too risky. I decided to use above mentioned OptiBoot boot loader that lets me write into Flash memory during program execution see comment in brackets. The new board definitions did not appear in my Arduino IDE 1. It worked after moving the content of the directory optiboot in a newly created folder avr. This corresponds to the way I had installed the Mighty p board definitions before. The path to the folder avr is Arduino.

Below this, you should find the folders boot loaders with sub folder optibootAtmelStudioexamples and two files with board definitions. One file is for new Arduino IDE versions 1. I renamed the file with the newer boards definitions with boards. What was missing, however, was a new boot loader for the ATmegap. TXT file that comes with his OptiBoot. Additionally, after compiling the new boot loader, I moved it to the location that the Arduino IDE reported it would search for it.

Within the Arduino IDE, I can now compile sketches that make use of Wodzinski's Optiboot boot loader, and that write to Flash memory while the sketch is being executed. I am suffering from a new phenomenon: I want to look at this later on. Today I have linked the Arduino Mega to the SD card reader, read from it and tried to write the file on the Flash memory.

In general, this was successful. I followed this tutorial on the Arduino website www. I wanted to do the same for the new Satshakit by Daniele Ingrassia. It took hours to get the electrical connections right because, as soon as I put the SD card reader into the circuit, Arduino IDE did not recognize the Satshakitor it was recognized but with a different device number, and no sketch could be burnt on it. I read about this advice in a tutorial on SPI. This still does not work.

I have decided to not use the feature from OptiBoot to load the game's hex code into Flash memory of the programming device - now an Arduino Mega - first. Instead, I have modified the program AdaStandalone such that I burn the code page per page on the target Satshakit while reading from the SD card.

Although I have adjusted the program in a way that it performs this task, it does not yet work. It reads from SD card but does not yet burn the fuses correctly. The Satshakit's on-board LED is attached to pin I used this sketch in order to check by wiring. I am using an Arduino Uno Rev. I wrote a sketch that allows me to read from the SD card see below section. Sometimes the sketch burnt to the Satshakitsometimes the Satshakit was not recognized, and the Arduino IDE reported device number 0x0.

At one point, neither a sketch could be burnt, nor could the directory of the SD card be printed. I switched to the Arduino Megaand I could at least read the directory contents from the SD card.

But I cannot read from SD card and burn on the Satshakit using my wiring. I, too, connected pin 10 on the Arduino Mega to this pin. Now two pins are linked to digital pin 10 of the Arduino Mega Now I can both access the SD card reader and burn sketches on the Satshakit using the same circuit see below image.

I have also added a uF capacitor to disable the autoreset function on the Arduino Mega I read this hint in an Instructables tutorial. I did that because this topic from electronics. To avoid driver contention, a series resistor should be placed on each of the three dedicated lines if there is a possibility that external circuitry could be driving these lines.

The program could no longer initialize it. But it had the pleasant side effect that the fuses of the Satshakit were burnt successfully: I would need to tweak the SPI settings in my code. SettingsA consists of the following parameters: After some time, however, it turned out that I can only reliably burn the fuses if I do not initialize the SD card reader.

Again, more investigation is needed. The games on the SD card are saved in Intel hexadecimal format. I want to convert them into binary files. This would allow me to write the byte stream page per page onto the target Satshakit On a Windows 10 PC, I used the program srecord v1.

I am again suffering from a strange error: I also tried different USB cables without positive result. I have found a very strange workaround: Any clue why this works?

Does my program garble the contents of my folder? I cannot burn to my Arduino Mega at all any longer. A user on this forum reports problems that hinder the collaboration between the SD card library by Arduino and Sparkfun and the SPI library. You can find it here. I will try this after FabAcademy, as I am running out of time. For my video game system, sadly, this means that it will not have the attractive features I wanted for it.

The player will not be able to load a game from SD card. Instead, for the time being, the system will remain a toy for advanced users. The SD card library supports only 8. The SD card library makes it simple to read files from and write to an SD card. I attached my SD card reader to the Arduino Mega using the following connections: I prepared an SD card following the advice from here file system FAT32, names not longer than 8 characters with the hex code of games I have written over the time.

I used this example program to print out its contents: Where do the files come from? The Arduino IDE temporarily stores the hexadecimal representation for a sketch it is compiling in a temporary directory with a seemingly random name.

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Collectively, we at MatterHackers have done it hundreds, if not thousands of times, so we can appreciate the complexity involved. In any case, just try to stay calm. Though it is complex, flashing firmware is a scientific process, and the rules of logic apply. The process for flashing firmware at least in the context of the 3D printing world consists of something like the following: Not much to it, is there? Sometimes it is just that easy. If not, resources are available to help you along.

Arduino is an open source electronics company and platform which designs and sells microcontrollers. The boards they produce are the basis for many of the boards used for controlling 3D printers due to their open source nature and ease of use.

As mentioned in the last section, the Arduino platform is not the only platform used for running 3D printer controllers. Smoothie is another such platform, and requires different software to flash boards which use it.

The concept and general process will be the same, though, so most everything we discuss here should be good information no matter what platform your printer runs on. These require their own firmware-flashing software which we do not cover here. If in doubt, check with the board manufacturer for information about flashing firmware. Head over to the Arduino website and download the latest version of the Arduino IDE integrated development environment for your operating system: Just make sure you get the standalone version, not the online IDE.

So what does the Arduino IDE actually do? This program loads the firmware files into memory, allows the user to edit code if necessary, compiles the code, and finally sends the compiled code to the board over a serial connection. Firmware is the actual code that runs your printer. It starts as human-readable code, which defines the logic i. On its fundamental level, firmware is just a computer program. As is typical of any function that a computer program performs, different programs have been created that all work similarly.

They all do the same thing i. We call these different programs different flavors-- like ice cream. Some of the common open source firmware solutions available include Repetier, Marlin, Sprinter, Smoothie, grbl, etc.

Current versions of the firmware files for Repetier and Marlin can be found in their respective GitHub repositories: Now just so you know, firmware is provided in various forms.

What you are looking for is the. Lulzbot, makers of the TAZ, has firmware readily available for all their printers, for example. TAZ 6 Marlin Firmware.

Download the folder, with all the files inside, and open the. Once you have the firmware open you can edit the code. In Marlin and Repetier, the Configuration. Other firmware should have a comparable file, which will function similarly. For further information, you can consult the Marlin documentation at marlinfw.

Repetier also has a handy online configuration tool , so you do not need to edit the Configuration. The rate at which bits of data are interchanged between the board and the host computer. Common values are and Different thermistors have different resistances to measure temperature. Defining which thermistor your hot end uses is absolutely necessary to ensure that the temperature is measured correctly.

While motor wires can be physically swapped around to change the direction in which the motors turn, the firmware can sometimes more easily be changed. Changing the value for the direction of the motors will cause them to spin the opposite direction. Setting how many steps is required to move the motor one millimeter is critical for calibrating the printer and making sure it moves correctly. Knowing how many endstops the printer has and whether the switches are always on or always closed is important, and these settings are easily adjusted here.

Temperatures can be manually set in degrees Celsius. Now that you have made all the changes you want to your firmware configuration, it is time to set up Arduino to upload your new firmware to your printer. Some firmwares require additional libraries to be installed.

These are additional pieces of software which the firmware utilizes to perform certain functions. For instance, one library commonly used by printer firmwares is U8glib which handles graphical LCD displays. If your printer has a graphical not text based screen then you will need this library. This is where you must select the type of motherboard that is installed in your printer. If you select the wrong board, you will most likely get an error when compiling. In some cases, though, you will need to add a new board to Arduino.

This process varies depending on which board you need to install, and which version of Arduino you are running. The following outlines the process using the built-in Boards Manager in Arduino 1. This works for the RAMBo board. For other boards you will need to follow the instructions in the links provided above. This is the serial port you use to connect to your printer. This is the same as the serial port selected in MatterControl. If you have only one printer connected to your computer, then choose the only port available.

Compiling converts the human readable if you are a programmer source code into binary instructions which the processor understands. When you click the checkbox button in Arduino, it will compile the firmware. During this process it will check for any issues with the code. If all goes well then when it is done it will report the size of the compiled firmware in white text in the console area. If there is an issue, it will give you an error message in orange text.

We have some common issues listed below. Check to see if your error message is among them. Finally, click the arrow button to upload the firmware to your printer. It will be automatically compiled if you have not done so already, and then the transfer will begin. This will take a minute or two; just be patient. When the process completes your printer will reboot. If not, you will probably have to go to the internet for help. Google is your friend. Arduino will often give you a very long list of error messages in the console.

The most critical one is usually the first one. Search for the error message along with the name of your firmware or printer. You will likely find some forum posts pointing you in the right direction. If you do not turn up anything in your research, you may need to ask a question on a web forum.

The best place to ask is probably the forum for your specific printer. The most important thing to remember when asking a question online is to include the full text of the error message. Whenever Arduino gives you an error, there will be a button above the console area which lets you copy the entire text. You can then post it using a service like Pastebin.

This means that Arduino is unable to communicate with your printer. Make sure that your printer is powered on and that you have selected the right port. Try pressing the reset button on your board after clicking upload. Some printers require special steps to be taken to put them in programming mode. Flashing the bootloader requires specialized equipment. You are using an older firmware which is not compatible with the latest versions of Arduino. Some printers still use older firmware which has not been updated yet.

You will need to install Arduino version 1. You can find it here: This indicates that the motherboard you are trying to use the one you have defined in Configuration. This may happen if you are trying to use a different type of motherboard than your printer came with.

This type of error message is shown if Arduino cannot find a file it is looking for. Usually this is because you are missing one of the libraries required by your firmware. In the example above we are missing the U8glib library. See the section above on installing libraries. You might also see a similar error message regarding Configuration.

You must unpack the.